LATHES

AR FILTRAZIONI | LATHES

The filtering solution for all pollutants produced during turning machining processes.

Turning is a chip removal working process allowing to work the spinning pieces around spindle axis of a machine called lathe.

The pollutants produced during this type of processes are mainly fumes, dust and oil mists, deriving from the atomisation of coolant.

The oil mists are composed by coolant particles suspended in the air. produced during the turning processes of mechanical industry.

We define turning the metal working by chip removal with a tool allowing to work the spinning pieces around spindle axis of a machine called lathe.
Roughing and finishing operations are the most frequent turning operations.

By turning we can obtain cylindrical, conical, spherical, helical and flat surfaces. The different turning operations are classified on the basis of the surface created or on its direction. Based on the surface obtained, the turning operations can be:

1 – external cylindrical turning
2 – internal cylindrical turning
3 –
flat turning

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A first classification of the types of cnc lathes is certainly based on the type of workpieces and their production batch (series production) or on the basis of complex pieces production and than how the piece is loaded.
The loading piece can be done manually (second-operation lathe) or automatically by bar feeder making the lathe work continuously (bar lathe).

CNC second-operation lathes

By definition they are fixed-heads. CNC lathes can, theoretically, be destined second-operation lathes. By it we mean all those secondary turning operations on mechanical parts don’t included in the mass production of an end-product. 
They are the turning processes running with another metal working on the same piece; both will realize the end-product.

1 -The teach-in lathes
They have a classic structure as  conventional centre lathes, but equipped with a numerical control. This feature allows the machine to memorize work programs and repeat them indefinitely. As for centre lathes, the most important technical characteristics for these machines are the height of the tips, the distance between the tips and the maximum turning diameter.

2 – The vertical lathes
These machines are necessary for the processing of large and heavy weight pieces such as the manufacture of railway wheels. The peculiar configuration of the vertical lathe includes the spindle platform housing (called plateau), at the base of the working area, allowing the clamping and processing of large pieces. The tool is placed in the upper part, in a mirror position of the platform. The tool is positioned on a device called RAM that allows the tool movement along the workpiece.

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We proudly show the example of the DMG-MORI Multisprint with AR Filtrazioni air cleaner Mod. ARNO 4K as standard adoption.

CNC bar lathes or automatic lathes

On the other hand, cnc bar lathes, as the name suggests, are automatic lathes and contribute to the mass-production. Bar metal workings make the most of their automation potential  in order to produce large quantities of mass-production pieces. 
The bar lathes are enslaved by the so-called bar feeder, feeding the bars automatically. Automatic lathes can be single-spindle or multi-spindle type.

1 – Single-spindle lathes
In the family of single-spindle automatic lathes, the experts first distinguish two types of machines, one with a fixed head and one with a moving head.

The single-spindle automatic lathes with sliding headstock also called swiss-type are ideal machines for the serial processing of pieces smaller than diam. 42 mm and therefore are ideal for small mechanical goods.

They are utilized in the medical and watch sectors. 

For small mechanical mass-production goods by the use of sliding headstock lathes, it is important to pay attention to the type of coolant used, to guarantee maximum results in terms of chip breaking, outflow of the enormous amount of chip produced and not lastly to guarantee the maximum durability of the cutting tool. Normally maximum efficiency is obtained by using neat, preferred than emulsion.

2 – Multi-spindle / multi-spindle lathers
They are typically steady headstock lathes, where the driving head, normally with horizontal axis, contains several workpiece spindles (from 2 to 12), which can also rotate at different speeds, and with the possibility of working multiple pieces simultaneously. In addition to the  turning process , it also performs various additional metal working, such as threading, milling or polygon.
The lathe can work the front  and back part,too,  offering a complete production process. 
For small mechanical mass-production goods with multi-spindle lathes, it is important to pay attention to the type of coolant in order to guarantee maximum results in terms of truciolability, outflow of the enormous amount of chips produced and not least ensure maximum durability of the cutting tool. Normally, maximum efficiency is obtained by using neat oil, preferred than emulsion.

The multi-spindle lathe is typically a fixed-head lathe, suitable for short parts production. With its 6 axes in X and Y and its possibility of working frontally,too, the strong point of a multi-ispindle lathe is its highly performances in number of producible pieces.
It is particularly suitable to manufacture complex and high-precision workpieces, in very multiple batches.

Once the classification of the main types of lathes has been completed, we now see how this information influences and determines the choice of a type of oil mist extractor and its options.

First of all, it is important to define the dimension of working area or operating field. The dimensions of the axes affect the maximum size of the worked pieces,the type of metal working and consequently the power of the suitable extraction system in terms of cubic meters/hours.

The list of all the technical characteristics of the turning centers is essential for AR FILTRAZIONI, to formulate an ad hoc offer.
In particular, some salient aspects are taken into consideration such as:

1 – Type of lathe: distinction between vertical or horizontal turning center and  whether single-spindle or multi-spindle;
2 – Type of coolant: if neat oil, emulsion or not used;
3 – Power of the driven tool cutter – spindle rotation speed;
4 – Loading mode of pieces: by second operation or by bar loader
5 – the presence of high pressure pumps for lubrication > 110 bar
6 – the type of material working
7 – the volume of the working area

All these informations are important and have be taken seriously into consideration whenever you are going to buy a mist collector for your machine tool.
Depending on the type of production required, it is presumed that particular types of pollutant will be generated during the metalworking machining processes and consequently a suitable air purifier has to be suggested.

The oil mists produced during turning metalworking with emulsified oil, are caused by the sum of these factors:

1) the evaporation of the coolant oils and the consequent production of fumes, oil mists and aerosols.

2) atomization of the oil caused by the high number of spindle/cutter revolutions and by the use of high pressure pumps of coolant oil on machine tool. 

The resultant of these two elements physically breaks down the fluids into particles, micro-dusts and micro-mists so thin as to make them volatile.

The problem of oil mists-dusts-fumes if not held in mechanical workshops.

The volatility of polluting particles such as industrial fumes, oil mists and aerosols, whether solid or liquid, entails and creates various problems for metalworking companies, operators and machine tools.

First of all, they negatively affect the health of the air and the health and hygienic conditions of the operators, in particular at the respiratory level, since the particles smaller than 0.3 microns can reach the pulmonary alveoli, compromising the respiratory tract.
Not only that, in contact with the epidermis, they create skin irritations, dermatitis and redness.

From the standpoint of production, micro-dust and oil mists pollution in the workshop considerably reduces the productivity and in particular the efficiency of the machine tools, since the stratification of pollutants invalidates the precision and tolerance of the measuring instruments, with the onerous consequence of having to increase maintenance on the most delicate components.
Dusts, oil mists and aerosols not filtered and purified, make the floor slippery, dirty the surfaces of the machine tools and the walls of the shed, on which they settle.
Without forgetting any possible fines deriving from current regulations, which impose a concentration limit for oil mists in the workplace.

– Italian TLV limit 5 mg / m3
– more restrictive ACGIH limit 0.5 mg / m3

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